Friday, December 18, 2009
Thursday, August 6, 2009
* Avian influenza
* Swine influenza
* Flu season
* A/H5N1 subtype
* A/H1N1 subtype
Swine influenza is endemic in pigs
Electron microscope image of the reassorted H1N1 influenza virus photographed at the CDC Influenza Laboratory. The viruses are 80–120 nanometres in diameter.
Swine influenza (also called H1N1 flu, swine flu, hog flu, and pig flu) is an infection by any one of several types of swine influenza virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3.
Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection. The meat of an infected animal poses no risk of infection when properly cooked.
During the mid-20th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans। Since then, only 50 such transmissions have been confirmed. These strains of swine flu rarely pass from human to human. Symptoms of zoonotic swine flu in humans are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort.
Swine flu is an infection caused by a virus. It's named for a virus that pigs can get. People do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. The virus is contagious and can spread from human to human. Symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular human flu and include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue.
There are antiviral medicines you can take to prevent or treat swine flu. There is no vaccine available right now to protect against swine flu. You can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza by
- Covering your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.
- Washing your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. You can also use alcohol-based hand cleaners.
- Avoiding touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread this way.
- Trying to avoid close contact with sick people.
- Staying home from work or school if you are sick।
Signs and symptoms
In pigs influenza infection produces fever, lethargy, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing and decreased appetite. In some cases the infection can cause abortion. Although mortality is usually low (around 1-4%), the virus can produce weight loss and poor growth, causing economic loss to farmers. Infected pigs can lose up to 12 pounds of body weight over a 3 to 4 week period.
Direct transmission of a swine flu virus from pigs to humans is occasionally possible (called zoonotic swine flu). In all, 50 cases are known to have occurred since the first report in medical literature in 1958, which have resulted in a total of six deaths. Of these six people, one was pregnant, one had leukemia, one had Hodgkin disease and two were known to be previously healthy. Despite these apparently low numbers of infections, the true rate of infection may be higher, since most cases only cause a very mild disease, and will probably never be reported or diagnosed.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in humans the symptoms of the 2009 "swine flu" H1N1 virus are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general. Symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. The 2009 outbreak has shown an increased percentage of patients reporting diarrhea and vomiting. The 2009 H1N1 virus is not zoonotic swine flu, as it is not transmitted from pigs to humans, but from person to person.
Because these symptoms are not specific to swine flu, a differential diagnosis of probable swine flu requires not only symptoms but also a high likelihood of swine flu due to the person's recent history. For example, during the 2009 swine flu outbreak in the United States, CDC advised physicians to "consider swine influenza infection in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness who have either been in contact with persons with confirmed swine flu, or who were in one of the five U.S. states that have reported swine flu cases or in Mexico during the 7 days preceding their illness onset." A diagnosis of confirmed swine flu requires laboratory testing of a respiratory sample (a simple nose and throat swab).
The most common cause of death is respiratory failure, other causes of death are pneumonia (leading to sepsis), high fever (leading to neurological problems), dehydration (from excessive vomiting and diarrhea) and electrolyte imbalance. Fatalities are more likely in young children and the elderly.
Prevention of swine influenza has three components: prevention in swine, prevention of transmission to humans, and prevention of its spread among humans.
Prevention in swine
Methods of preventing the spread of influenza among swine include facility management, herd management, and vaccination (ATCvet code: QI09). Because much of the illness and death associated with swine flu involves secondary infection by other pathogens, control strategies that rely on vaccination may be insufficient.
Control of swine influenza by vaccination has become more difficult in recent decades, as the evolution of the virus has resulted in inconsistent responses to traditional vaccines. Standard commercial swine flu vaccines are effective in controlling the infection when the virus strains match enough to have significant cross-protection, and custom (autogenous) vaccines made from the specific viruses isolated are created and used in the more difficult cases. Present vaccination strategies for SIV control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. Of the 97 recent H3N2 isolates examined, only 41 isolates had strong serologic cross-reactions with antiserum to three commercial SIV vaccines. Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests that current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses. The United States Department of Agriculture researchers say that while pig vaccination keeps pigs from getting sick, it does not block infection or shedding of the virus.
Facility management includes using disinfectants and ambient temperature to control virus in the environment. The virus is unlikely to survive outside living cells for more than two weeks, except in cold (but above freezing) conditions, and it is readily inactivated by disinfectants. Herd management includes not adding pigs carrying influenza to herds that have not been exposed to the virus. The virus survives in healthy carrier pigs for up to 3 months and can be recovered from them between outbreaks. Carrier pigs are usually responsible for the introduction of SIV into previously uninfected herds and countries, so new animals should be quarantined. After an outbreak, as immunity in exposed pigs wanes, new outbreaks of the same strain can occur.
Prevention in humans
- Prevention of pig to human transmission
Swine can be infected by both avian and human influenza strains of influenza, and therefore are hosts where the antigenic shifts can occur that create new influenza strains.
The transmission from swine to human is believed to occur mainly in swine farms where farmers are in close contact with live pigs. Although strains of swine influenza are usually not able to infect humans this may occasionally happen, so farmers and veterinarians are encouraged to use a face mask when dealing with infected animals. The use of vaccines on swine to prevent their infection is a major method of limiting swine to human transmission. Risk factors that may contribute to swine-to-human transmission include smoking and not wearing gloves when working with sick animals.
- Prevention of human to human transmission
Influenza spreads between humans through coughing or sneezing and people touching something with the virus on it and then touching their own nose or mouth. Swine flu cannot be spread by pork products, since the virus is not transmitted through food. The swine flu in humans is most contagious during the first five days of the illness although some people, most commonly children, can remain contagious for up to ten days. Diagnosis can be made by sending a specimen, collected during the first five days for analysis.
Recommendations to prevent spread of the virus among humans include using standard infection control against influenza. This includes frequent washing of hands with soap and water or with alcohol-based hand sanitizers, especially after being out in public. Chance of transmission is also reduced by disinfecting household surfaces, which can be done effectively with a diluted chlorine bleach solution. Although the current trivalent influenza vaccine is unlikely to provide protection against the new 2009 H1N1 strain, vaccines against the new strain are being developed and could be ready as early as June 2009.
Experts agree that hand-washing can help prevent viral infections, including ordinary influenza and the swine flu virus. Influenza can spread in coughs or sneezes, but an increasing body of evidence shows small droplets containing the virus can linger on tabletops, telephones and other surfaces and be transferred via the fingers to the mouth, nose or eyes. Alcohol-based gel or foam hand sanitizers work well to destroy viruses and bacteria. Anyone with flu-like symptoms such as a sudden fever, cough or muscle aches should stay away from work or public transportation and should contact a doctor for advice.
Social distancing is another tactic. It means staying away from other people who might be infected and can include avoiding large gatherings, spreading out a little at work, or perhaps staying home and lying low if an infection is spreading in a community. Public health and other responsible authorities have action plans which may request or require social distancing actions depending on the severity of the outbreak.
As swine influenza is rarely fatal to pigs, little treatment beyond rest and supportive care is required. Instead veterinary efforts are focused on preventing the spread of the virus throughout the farm, or to other farms. Vaccination and animal management techniques are most important in these efforts. Antibiotics are also used to treat this disease, which although they have no effect against the influenza virus, do help prevent bacterial pneumonia and other secondary infections in influenza-weakened herds.
If a person becomes sick with swine flu, antiviral drugs can make the illness milder and make the patient feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu complications. For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within 2 days of symptoms). Beside antivirals, supportive care at home or in hospital, focuses on controlling fevers, relieving pain and maintaining fluid balance, as well as identifying and treating any secondary infections or other medical problems. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of Tamiflu (oseltamivir) or Relenza (zanamivir) for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses; however, the majority of people infected with the virus make a full recovery without requiring medical attention or antiviral drugs. The virus isolates in the 2009 outbreak have been found resistant to amantadine and rimantadine.
In the U.S., on April 27, 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorizations to make available Relenza and Tamiflu antiviral drugs to treat the swine influenza virus in cases for which they are currently unapproved. The agency issued these EUAs to allow treatment of patients younger than the current approval allows and to allow the widespread distribution of the drugs, including by non-licensed volunteers.
Sunday, May 10, 2009
Saturday, May 9, 2009
Tuesday, April 14, 2009
Model: Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce
Engine: 6.5 litre V12
Maximum Power: 670 hp (493 kW) @ 8000 rpm
Maximum Torque: 487 lb-ft (660 Nm) @ 6500 rpm
Transmission: Six-speed automated manual transmission
Drivetrain: All-wheel drive
2009 Lamborghini Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce
Lamborghini Press Release
2 March 2008
The Lamborghini Murcielago is one of the most extraordinary super sports cars of all time. Automobili Lamborghini has now expanded its model range with a new, exceptionally purist and even more extreme top model – the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce is even more powerful, lighter and faster than the Murcielago LP 640. With the output of the 6.5 litre V12 increased to 670 hp and a weight reduction of 100 kg (220 lbs), the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce boasts a power-to-weight ratio of 2.3 kg (5.1 lbs) per hp. This catapults it from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in a breathtaking 3.2 seconds and powers it on to a top speed of around 342 km/h (212 mph). Distinctive design refinements ensure that each of this 350-unit limited edition series conveys its full potential from the very first glance.
With its outstanding performance, razor-sharp precision and exceptional high-speed stability, the Lamborghini Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce is the ultimate performance car for advanced sports car drivers. The super sports car has been extensively redesigned with a new front and rear, an innovative engine bonnet and a choice of two aerodynamic set-ups featuring either a small or large rear spoiler. The interior in Alcantara and carbon fibre provides a purist and minimalist approach.
In order to achieve the substantial weight reduction of 100 kilograms (220 lbs), the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce was extensively reworked and redeveloped in virtually every aspect – from chassis to engine and transmission, right through to the interior. The increase in engine output from 640 to 670 hp is the result of optimised valve timing and a reworked intake system. The significantly modified aerodynamics with substantially increased downforce brings considerable improvement to vehicle stability at very high speeds. With the small standard-fit rear spoiler, top speed stands at 342 km/h (212 mph), while the large “Aeropack Wing” and its added downforce gives a top speed of 337 km/h (209 mph).
“The new Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce is the systematic continuation of our brand philosophy. It is more extreme and uncompromising than virtually any other automobile,” says Stephan Winkelmann, President and CEO of Automobili Lamborghini. “As the new top model of the highly successful Murcielago range, the SuperVeloce displays not only outstanding driving dynamics, it is also further evidence of our company’s technological expertise. Customers can look forward to an utterly unparalleled driving experience.”
Design and aerodynamics
The Murcielago is an icon of the Lamborghini brand – a sports machine of menacing character and brutal power. Its unique design radiates a supreme form of highly concentrated sensuality. Wide, low, with its glass area pushed way forward and a long, taut back – the interplay between the soft contours of the basic form and razor sharp edges is the perfect expression of the Lamborghini design language. In the totality of its character, the Murcielago is without comparison on the sports car market.
Yet even a character like this can be further refined – the new Lamborghini Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce is the more extreme, even more purist pinnacle of the model range. This is clearly evident from the very first glimpse of its completely redesigned front end – pulled way forward and finished in matt black paint, the carbon fibre front spoiler is connected to the front end via two vertical elements. The large air intakes for the front brakes are more powerfully emphasised. The new front fenders feature additional air intakes for brake ventilation. The air vent for the oil cooler located in the driver-side sill area is painted matt black to match the sills.
The modifications are even more apparent around the mighty engine bay of the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce. The twelve-cylinder engine is presented as an engineering masterpiece under a transparent engine bonnet that boasts a completely new architecture. Hexagonal polymer plates made from transparent polycarbonate are set on three levels within a carbon fibre framework. The layers are open towards the rear, playing a key role in the thermodynamics of the high-performance engine.
The impressive rear end of the SuperVeloce is dominated by a veritably noble, flat and extremely wide exhaust tailpipe and, on the underside, by a two-level diffuser system finished entirely in carbon fibre. The rear light clusters display their signals in that distinctive Y-shape that has been a fixed element of Lamborghini design since the Murcielago LP 640, Reventon and Gallardo LP 560-4. The panel between the lights is made from carbon fibre, while the large intake mesh below expands across the full width of the rear end. Made from thick-walled aluminium, the hexagonal pattern is laser-cut and a Teflon coating provides the necessary heat protection.
The aerodynamics of the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce have been completely redeveloped. Alongside the enlarged front spoiler and the twin rear diffuser, the new fixed rear spoiler also plays an important role. Customers can choose between two versions, with the small rear spoiler providing improved downforce at high speeds. As an option, the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce can be supplied with the “Aeropack Wing” – a large, fixed, carbon-fibre wing mounted on two carbon-fibre brackets. The new aerodynamic set-up provides a significant boost to directional stability at the very highest speeds. The top-speed downforce on the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce with Aeropack is strongly increased.
Bodyshell and lightweight construction
With the construction of the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce, Lamborghini proves its expertise in the manufacture of lightweight materials and in working with hi-tech carbon fibre. The structure of the super sports car is a composite construction of extremely stiff carbon components and a tubular steel frame – as in a race car. The transmission tunnel and the floor are made of carbon fibre, attached to the steel frame using rivets and high-strength adhesives. The roof and the exterior door panels are formed in sheet steel, while the remainder of the outer skin is made from carbon composite material.
For the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce, engineers in Sant’Agata Bolognese recalculated the framework and selected a new, super high-strength sectional steel. This achieved two objectives – on the one hand, they increased the torsional stiffness of the chassis by 12 percent to provide improved handling precision and, on the other, they were able to reduce weight by 20 kg (44 lbs), making a significant contribution to the reduction of overall vehicle weight. And the systematic approach to lightweight design continues throughout the entire bodyshell. The front fenders, the rear side panels/fenders and the casing for the third brake light are made of a modified carbon-fibre material. Combined with the removal of the drive for the moveable spoiler, this brings a further weight reduction of 13 kg (28.6 lbs).
Added to the 33 kg (72.6 lbs) of weight reduction from the chassis and exterior, are 34 kg (74.8 lbs) from the interior, as well as over 33 kg (72.6 lbs) removed from the engine and drive train.
Power unit and transmission
The longitudinally mounted 6.5 litre V12 delivers the infernal power for an unparalleled driving experience. With 670 hp (493 kW), the engine in the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce is 30 hp more powerful than in the Murcielago LP 640. The twelve-cylinder sends its mighty 660 Nm (487 lb-ft) of torque to the crankshaft at 6,500 rpm; maximum power is reached at 8,000 rpm, with an average piston speed of 23.7 metres per second – a figure almost comparable to race engines.
The V12 is eager to deliver its performance – it brings its menacing power with immediacy and precision to guarantee breathtaking performance – after only 3.2 seconds the SuperVeloce has already reached 100 km/h (62 mph).
The engine block and heads of the V12, positioned at the ideal cylinder angle of 60 degrees, are made from aluminium. The four chain-driven camshafts are variably controlled, while the intake manifold operates in three stages – both technologies add even greater thrust to the merciless pushing power. To increase the performance of the SuperVeloce, the intake system was modified, the valve train optimised and, most importantly, valve travel was increased.
The control electronics for the V12 were developed internally by Lamborghini - each cylinder bank has its own high-performance processor. If the engine needs more cooling air, intake funnels emerge from the rear pillars: when not in operation, they lie flush with the bodyshell. Dry sump lubrication enables the V12 to be mounted extremely low down, benefiting the handling dynamics: this also guarantees oil supply under extremely dynamic driving conditions. With 12 litres of lubricating oil in circulation, the oil cooler is located on the left side of the vehicle and cooled by air flowing through the aperture in the sill.
The weight reduction of more than 26 kg (57 lbs) in the engine area was derived primarily from the completely new exhaust system. The muffler has been redesigned and even the mighty tailpipe of the SuperVeloce manufactured from new materials is lighter than on the Murcielago LP 640. But most of all, the new exhaust system makes for an acoustic experience that is surely equal to the driving performance – from the heavy rumble of a stormy night, through the trumpeting of mighty elephants to the roar of a raging lion, the SuperVeloce performs the grand opera for 12 cylinders, 48 valves and 8,000 revs.
The SuperVeloce is equipped as standard with the sequential, automated manual transmission e.gear, which uses electro-hydraulics to shift gear extremely quickly and smoothly. A cockpit display informs the driver of the gear currently engaged. In addition a special “Corsa” mode and a “Low adherence” mode are available.
As a no-premium option, the SuperVeloce is available with a six-speed manual transmission. Its short metal shift stick runs in an open gate of classic Italian elegance. In both variants, the new lightweight clutch makes its own contribution to the weight loss program.
All-wheel drive and chassis
The Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce delivers its extreme power to the road with great reliability – assured by its permanent all-wheel drive. Before the rear wheels spin, the viscous coupling sends up to 35 percent of driving force via its additional shaft to the front wheels. The front and rear limited-slip differentials are set at 25 and 45 percent. With its four driven wheels and traction, the Murcielago delivers a decisive advantage over rear-wheel drive sports cars when it comes to accelerating out of a corner – and always with maximum stability. The rear axle bears 58 percent of its overall weight – a distribution ratio that is highly beneficial to traction.
Explosive dynamics, tenacious cornering and extreme speeds – the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce is a super sports car packed with aggressive power, but by no means a mean-spirited car. Its steering requires very little power support, giving full control of the car to the driver. Those prepared to tackle the beast head on are quickly rewarded with intimate contact and trust – as speed increases, so the Murcielago reveals its strengths, thus exposing a character with no hidden surprises and behaviour that can always be anticipated.
The Murcielago is fitted with double wishbone suspension all round. Spring struts – two on each of the rear wheels and one on each of the front – control the loads transferred from the road. The standard-fit lifting system enables the front end of the vehicle to be raised by 45 mm (1.8 inches) to avoid obstacles such as garage entryways. The SuperVeloce is equipped with exclusive “Ares” alloy-forged wheels, bearing the exclusive five twin-spoke design. The front wheels are clad in 245/35 ZR 18 rubber, while the rears sport 335/30 ZR 18. High-grip Pirelli P Zero Corsa tyres come as standard.
Four brakes controlled by a hi-tech ABS system are capable of mighty stopping power when required. The Carbon Ceramic (CCB) brakes are fanned by cooling air flowing through enlarged channels in the bodyshell, while openings in the front fenders provide additional ventilation for the SuperVeloce. The ceramic discs are exceptionally lightweight, fade-free and capable of extremely high operational performance.
Interior and equipment
Even stepping into the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce is an experience as individual as the vehicle itself. The upward-opening doors – a solution developed by Lamborghini in the early seventies for the Countach – are released via small latches, then swing wide open to reveal a panorama of the exclusive interior of the Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce. The dominating materials are Alcantara and carbon fibre, which make for an ambience that is as high-quality as it is sporty.
The sports bucket seats come as standard and provide exceptionally firm support around the hip and shoulder areas. The bucket seats are made from lightweight and highly robust carbon fibre and guarantee the driver perfect support, even in the most extreme driving situations. The Murcielago’s standard seats are also available on the SuperVeloce as an option free of charge.
Not only the seats are upholstered in black Alcantara micro-fibre; the cockpit and the roof lining are also finished in this high-quality, lightweight material. The Y-shaped perforations on the seats and roof lining bring additional finesse, with an inlaid backing material in the same colour as the exterior paintwork. The Murcielago LP670-4 SuperVeloce can be delivered with the paint finishes Giallo Orion, Arancio Atlas, Bianco Isis, Grigio Telesto and Nero Aldebaran, as well as Bianco Canopus (white matt) and Nero Nemesis (black matt) as an option.
Naturally, the interior also makes its contribution to weight reduction. The door panels are clad in carbon fibre, as is the wide center tunnel. The application of Alcantara instead of leather is another weight-saver, just like the selection of sports bucket seats and the omission of the radio-navigation system (if requested, this is available as an option). At the end of the day, the music in a Murcielago comes from the engine compartment. Overall, modifications to the interior contribute over 34 kg (75 lbs) to the SuperVeloce weight loss program.
But absolutely no corners have been cut when it comes to one characteristic that is a feature of all Lamborghini super sports cars – the exceptionally high quality of the workmanship. The craftsmen in Sant’Agata Bolognese are all masters of their respective trades; the three-year warranty bears testimony to absolute faith in product quality.
Thursday, November 6, 2008
India has been one of the best performers in the world economy in recent years, but rapidly rising inflation and the complexities of running the world’s biggest democracy are proving challenging. India’s economy has been one of the stars of global economics in recent years, growing 9.2% in 2007 and 9.6% in 2006. Growth had been supported by markets reforms, huge inflows of FDI, rising foreign exchange reserves, both an IT and real estate boom, and a flourishing capital market.
Like most of the world, however, India is facing testing economic times in 2008. The Reserve Bank of India had set an inflation target of 4%, but by the middle of the year it was running at 11%, the highest level seen for a decade. The rising costs of oil, food and the resources needed for India’s construction boom are all playing a part. India has to compete ever harder in the energy market place in particular and has not been as adept at securing new fossil fuel sources as the Chinese. The Indian Government is looking at alternatives, and has signed a wide-ranging nuclear treaty with the US, in part to gain access to nuclear power plant technology that can reduce its oil thirst. This has proved contentious though, leading to leftist members of the ruling coalition pulling out of the government. As part of the fight against inflation a tighter monetary policy is expected, but this will help slow the growth of the Indian economy still further, as domestic demand will be dampened. External demand is also slowing, further adding to the downside risks. The Indian stock market has fallen more than 40% in six months from its January 2008 high. $6b of foreign funds have flowed out of the country in that period, reacting both to slowing economic growth and perceptions that the market was over-valued. It is not all doom and gloom, however. A growing number of investors feel that the market may now be undervalued and are seeing this as a buying opportunity. If their optimism about the long term health of the Indian economy is correct, then this will be a needed correction rather than a downtrend. The Indian government certainly hopes that is the case. It views investment in the creaking infrastructure of the country as being a key requirement, and has ear-marked 23.8 trillion rupees, approximately $559 billion, for infrastructure upgrades during the 11th five year plan. It expects to fund 70% of project costs, with the other 30% being supplied by the private sector. Ports, airports, roads and railways are all seen as vital for the Indian Economy and have been targeted for investment.
Further hope comes from the confidence of India’s home bred companies. As well as taking over the domestic reins, where they now account for most of the economic activity, they are also increasingly expanding abroad. India has contributed more new members to the Forbes Global 2000 than any other country in the last four years. Recent Growth Trends in Indian Economy India’s Economy has grown by more than 9% for three years running, and has seen a decade of 7%+ growth. This has reduced poverty by 10%, but with 60% of India’s 1.1 billion population living off agriculture and with droughts and floods increasing, poverty alleviation is still a major challenge. The structural transformation that has been adopted by the national government in recent times has reduced growth constraints and contributed greatly to the overall growth and prosperity of the country. However there are still major issues around federal vs state bureaucracy, corruption and tariffs that require addressing. India’s public debt is 58% of GDP according to the CIA World Fact book, and this represents another challenge. During this period of stable growth, the performance of the Indian service sector has been particularly significant. The growth rate of the service sector was 11.18% in 2007 and now contributes 53% of GDP. The industrial sector grew 10.63% in the same period and is now 29% of GDP. Agriculture is 17% of the Indian economy. Growth in the manufacturing sector has also complemented the country’s excellent growth momentum. The growth rate of the manufacturing sector rose steadily from 8.98% in 2005, to 12% in 2006. The storage and communication sector also registered a significant growth rate of 16.64% in the same year. Additional factors that have contributed to this robust environment are sustained in investment and high savings rates. As far as the percentage of gross capital formation in GDP is concerned, there has been a significant rise from 22.8% in the fiscal year 2001, to 35.9% in the fiscal year 2006. Further, the gross rate of savings as a proportion to GDP registered solid growth from 23.5% to 34.8% for the same period.
Wednesday, October 29, 2008
1. We should teach our kids that if he is second in class, don't studyharder.. just beat up the student coming first and throw him out of theschool
2. Parliament should have only Delhiites as it is located in Delhi
3. Prime-minister, president and all other leaders should only be fromDelhi
4. No Hindi movie should be made in Bombay. Only Marathi.
5. At every state border, buses, trains, flights should be stopped andstaff changed to local men
6. All Maharashtrians working abroad or in other states should be sent backas they are SNATCHING employment from Locals
7. Lord Shiv, Ganesha and Parvati should not be worshiped in our state asthey belong to north (Himalayas)
8. Visits to Taj Mahal should be restricted to people from UP only
9. Relief for farmers in Maharashtra should not come from centre becausethat is the money collected as Tax from whole of India, so why should it begiven to someone in Maharashtra?
10. Let's support Kashmiri Militants because they are right in killing andinjuring innocent people for the benefit of their state and community..
11. Let's throw all MNCs out of Maharashtra, why should they earn from us?We will open our own Maharashtra Microsoft, MH Pepsi and MH Marutis of theworld
12. Let's stop using cellphones, emails, TV, foreign Movies and dramas.James Bond should speak Marathi
13. We should be ready to die hungry or buy food at 10 times higher pricebut should not accept imports from other states
14. We should not allow any industry to be setup in Maharashtra because allmachinery comes from outside
15. We should STOP using local trains... Trains are not manufactured byMarathi manoos and Railway Minister is a Bihari
16. Ensure that all our children are born, grow, live and die without ever
stepping out of Maharashtra, they will become true Marathi's
Could you suggest your opinion about same?
Me too believe & dreaming about Slogan " Jai Maharastra" but at the same time, We should not forget our prime slogan "Jai Hind" We all are here to work for betterment & growth of our country which has 26 more states like Maharastra & Bihar.
Its Hi-Time for eveyone to do things for growth of country instead of reginoal interest. No one can shines unless or untill India Shines. At Last; I would like to say;
Jai Hind...! means Jai Maharastra, Jai Bihar, Jai Bengal, Jai Gujarat, Jai Karnataka, Jai Tamil Nadu, Jai Jammu.......